Famous People in Rome

5 Jan

Julius Caesar


Famous People: Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (July 12, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played an important part in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

He is widely considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses of all time, as well as a brilliant politician and one of the ancient world’s strongest leaders. He was proclaimed dictator for life, and he heavily centralized the government of the Republic.

He was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BC. Caesar’s military campaigns are known in detail from his own written Commentaries (Commentarii), and many details of his life are recorded by later historians.


The murder of Caesar was followed by a decade of civil war that ended with the birth of the Roman Empire.

After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in a sea battle near Actium, in 31 BC, Octavian became the unchallenged master of Rome and the entire Mediterranean.

On January 13 of 27 Bc, the Senate awarded Octavian the name of Augustus establishing the imperial monarchy that would endure for five centuries. It was the end of the Roman Republic (509-27 BC).



Famous People: Augustus Emperor


Emperor Augustus of Rome was born with the name Gaius Octavius on September 23, 63 B.C. He took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian) in 44 B.C. after the murder of his great uncle, Julius Caesar. In his will Caesar had adopted Octavian and made him his heir.

Octavian was a shrewd, brilliant and astute politician. He was able to achieve a great power in Rome. At the time of Caesar’s assassination, Octavian held no official position.

Only after he marched on Rome and forced the senate to name him consul, was he established as a power to be reckoned with.

Rome achieved great glory under Augustus. He restored peace after 100 years of civil war; maintained an honest government and a sound currency system; extended the highway system connecting Rome with its far-flung empire; developed an efficient postal service; fostered free trade among the provinces; and built many bridges, aqueducts and buildings adorned with beautiful works of art created in the classical style.

Literature flourished with writers including Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Livy all living under the emperor’s patronage. The empire expanded under Augustus with his generals subduing Spain, Gaul (now France), Panonia and Dalmatia (now parts of Hungary and Croatia). He annexed Egypt and most of southwestern Europe up to the Danube River. After his death, the people the Roman Empire worshipped Augustus as a god.


If you’d like more information, please visit our page about Roman Empire and Emperors.




Famous People: Virgilio


Publius Vergilius Maro was born in 70 BC in Mantua, a city of the Roman Empire. He died in 19 BC in Rome. He was the writer of the epic poem, The Aeneid.

Virgil spent his entire life as a poet. He was born into the Roman world the son of a patrician family, and educated as such a son of such class was. His talents caught the sight of the Roman emperor Caeser Augustus who commissioned him to create an epic poem about the glory of the Roman Empire that would rival the great works of Homer.

Before his death, he requested that his manuscript for the Aeneid be destroyed. Fortunately, the emporer saw otherwise.


Raphael Sanzio


Famous People: Raphael

Born Raffaelo Santi or Sanzio, 1483-1520

Raphael was an outstanding master of Italian High Renaissance art. Working chiefly as a painter and occasionally as an architect, he synthesized classicism, idealization, and naturalism to create a consummate Renaissance style.

Born in Urbino, from 1504 to 1508 Raphael lived in Florence; this experience would prove decisive in the maturation of his career, as exposure to the art of Leonardo and Michelangelo led him to develop a grandiose, powerful approach. In 1508 Raphael moved to Rome, where he would spend the rest of his life. Like Michelangelo, he was employed in redecorating the papal apartments in the Vatican.

After this wonderful work he was inundated with commissions, both public and private, from the highest levels of Roman society. He was commissioned by Pope Leo X to design a set of nine tapestries to decorate the Sistine Chapel.

Raphael also worked as an architect. He designed two chapels for Agostino Chigi, an influential Roman banker, between 1512 and 1516. This new role allowed him to determine how his art was experienced.

Raphael’s last major work was still incomplete at his death. The Transfiguration (Rome, Vatican, 1518-20), a huge altarpiece commissioned by the Medici, took the static, iconic altarpiece formula of Renaissance art and converted it into dynamic narrative.

Until the nineteenth century Raphael’s works served as the paradigm of great art for western civilization.

Read More on WebGallery of Art


Gioachino Belli


Famous People: Gioachino Belli Giuseppe Gioacchino Belli (March 7, 1791 – December 21, 1863) was an Italian poet, born in Rome. After a period of literary employment in poor circumstances, his marriage with a woman of means enabled him to follow his special vein of literature.

He is remembered for his vivid popular poetry in the Roman dialect – thousands of satirical sonnets that form an invaluable document of 19th century’s papal Rome and the life of its common, humbler people.


Source: Wikipedia


Roberto Rossellini



Roberto Rossellini Roberto Rossellini was one of the most famous Italian film directors from the first half of the 20th century. Born in 1906 in Rome, he grew in the ambient of cinema, since his father built the first cinema of the capital. As young he worked as a sound maker for films and had an opportunity to meet some important figures in filmmaking.

He started with Goffredo Alessandrini, and worked during his career with Fellini, Fabrizi and others. Just two months after the liberation of Rome, Rossellini was already working on his famous film Rome, open city-1945, which was a huge success.

Rossellini preferred using non-professional actors. He wrote scripts according to their feelings and histories. He liked using a lot of regional accents and dialects in his films.

He was a real womanizer, who married four times and had seven children. His third wife was the famous international actress Ingrid Bergman. It was one of the most famous love stories from the ambient of cinema. Started as an affair since both of them were already married, but when Ingrid Bergman became pregnant they made their relationship official. One of their children is well-known actress and model Isabella Rossellini. The marriage to Berman ended due to an affair with an Indian screenwriter Sonali Das Gupta who worked with him during the filming in India. That was another love scandal in his life.

Rossellini died in Rome in 1977. He left behind some of the important films of Italian early cinematography: “Roma, città aperta”, “Paisà”, “L’Amore”, “Europa ’51”, “Viva l’Italia!”, etc.


Federico Fellini



Federico Fellini Federico Fellini! That controversial Italian director-both criticizes and praised to the maximum. He was born in Rimini (January 1920) but spent most of his life working in Rome, the center of Italian cinematography. His early career as a journalist is to blame for his beginnings in the industry of cinema. There he met some great names like Vitaliano Brancati, a novelist, Piero Tellin, a scriptwriter, Bernardino Zapponi, his future screenwriter.

During the Second World War, Fellini was working for the radio, trying to avoid the draft. There he met his wife, Giulietta Masina. They collaborated professionally many times in their future life. Due to a war circumstances his medical records were destroyed in a bombing and he was freed of the draft.

Before he started his career as a director, Fellini wrote dialogues for Aldo Fabrizi’s and Rossellini‘s scripts. He continued working with Rossellini on several of his movies: “Roma, città aperta”, “Paisà”, “L’amore”, “Europa’51”.

During his work on the movie La strada, Fellini had his first signs of severe clinical depression. Despite all, he managed to finish his work, and was also reworded with his first Oscar in 1957 as the Best Foreign Film. His second Oscar for the Best Foreign Film came the year after, for his famous film “Notti di Cabiria”. In making it he collaborated with Dino De Laurentiis, Giulietta-his wife, Pier Paolo Pasolini, who was hired to translate dialogues into Roman dialect. Giulietta Masina got reworded as the Best Actress at Cannes.

His Film “La Dolce Vita” broke all box office records at the time. Everybody wanted to see the new Fellini’s film before the censors banned it. Fellini was inspired by photos of Anita Ekberg walking fully dressed through beautiful Trevi Fountain in Rome. A lot of famous scenes were shot in the studios at Cinecittà.

After his great successes, Fellini faced his strong creative block when he started working on his film “8 ½”. Eventually, the inspiration for the film actually came out of that block, and the film narrates it. He gave this particular name to the film because it was his 8th movie. He got a lot of nominations and rewords for it.

It’s interesting how much he was criticized at his beginnings, even told he had nothing in common with making movies, but almost all of them became famous and took a lot of awards. Not to mention Lifetime Achievement Awards at the Cannes Film Festival (1974), Venice Film Festival (1985), Oscar (1993). In 1985 he became the first non-American to receive the Film Society of Lincoln Center’s annual award for cinematic achievement. He also got the Japan Art Association’s Praemium Imperiale (equivalent of the Nobel Prize in the visual arts) in 1990.

Fellini died in Rome at the age of 73. His wife joined him five months later.

For more info you can visit the official site of the Fellini Fondazione.


Sophia Loren



Sophia Loren Sophia Loren, a beautiful Italian film actress, still active in her way over seventies, was born in Rome in 1934. She made her way into the world of the famous by enrolling in acting class where she was selected as an extra in the Mervyn LeRoy’s “Quo Vadis”. Sophia met her husband Carlo Ponti, film director, when she took part in a beauty contest where he was in a jury. From there she started to getting to know the important figures in Hollywood and co-starred with Cary Grant and Frank Sinatra. Alongside with her acting career she also recorded over two dozen songs.

In 1961 Sophia Loren won an Academy Award for Best Actress for “Two Women“, becoming the first actor to win an Academy Award for a non-English-speaking performance. Then followed the 1995’s Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1991 she received the Academy Honorary Award for her contributions to world cinema. It’s interesting that there’s a street in Etobicoke, near Toronto named after her.

Some of her work to remember is:

  • Boy on a Dolphin
  • The pride and the passion
  • 2 nights with Cleopatra
  • Heller in pink tights
  • Two Women
  • The voyage
  • Lives of the Saints


Isabella Rossellini



Isabella Rossellini Isabella Rossellini, an Italian actress, filmmaker and model was born in a famous Bergman-Rossellini marriage in 1952 in Rome. She made her debut in a film “A metter of time” where she played with her mother, but people usually remember her from the David Lynch’s “Blue Velvet”, where she played a role as a nightclub singer. She starred in another Lynch’s film “Wild at heart” as Perdita Durango. Rossellini had a brief marriage with Martin Scorsese, and in that period also started her modeling career. She was for 14 years a face of Lancome. Beside her modeling and acting career she is also a board member of the Wildlife Conservation Network and a National Ambassador for the U.S. Fund for UNICEF.


Sergio Leone



Sergio Leone Sergio Leone was an Italian film director, producer and screen writer. He was born in Rome in 1929, in a marriage of known film artists, Vincenzo Leone, a.k.a. Roberto Roberti and silent film actress Bice Waleran. Naturally he showed his interest for filmmaking very early. He started with historical epics, popular at the time. He also worked as an assistant director on some very famous films shot at the Cinecittà Studios in Rome like “Quo Vadis” and “Ben Hur”.

Leone is mostly associated with the “Spaghetti Western” genre which started with his well known triology “A Fistful of Dollars”, “For a Few Dollars More” and “The Good, the Bad and the Ugly”. One after another they were becoming a huge success. The first film of this triology actually established Clint Eastwood as a star, who had been until then an American TV actor. Since then Sergio Leone started collaborating with his classmate, music composer Ennio Morricone.

After these successful films, Leone finally could afford to work with some famous actors like Charles Bronson and Henry Fonda on a film “Once Upon a Time in the West”, made for Paramount Pictures.

His last film, and maybe his best is “Once Upon a Time in America”, an almost 4 hours long masterpiece featuring Robert De Nero and James Woods.

Sergio Leone died in 1989 of a heart attack.


Ennio Morricone



Ennio Morricone Ennio Morricone, well known Italian composer and conductor was born in Rome in 1928. He was educated at the National academy of Santa Cecilia in the trumpet, composition, choral music and choral direction under Goffredo Petrassi. After he graduated he continued working in classical composition and arrangement, and in the early ’50s he begun writing his first background music for radio dramas. His career as film music composer started in 1961 with the film “Il Federale” directed by Luciano Salce, but Morricone became famous together with his classmate Sergio Leone working on his westerns. Ennio Morricone has composed and arranged scores for more than 500 film and TV productions. He collaborated with a lot of famous directors living his recognizable trace in their movies. Some of them are before mentioned Sergio Leone, then Brian De Palma, Giuseppe Tornatore, Oliver Stone, Pedro Almodovar, Roman Polanski, Bernardo Bertolucci, ..etc.

He also conducted the Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus of La Scala Theatre, the Rome Opera House Orchestra, the Budapest Opera House Orchestra, the Orquesta Nacionales de España (ONE) and the National Brazilian Orchestra.

His work has been greatly awarded with: 1 Grammy Award, 3 Golden Globes and 5 Anthony Asquith Awards for Film Music by BAFTA. Morricone has been nominated for 5 Academy Awards for Best Music. He received the Honorary Academy Award in 2007 for “his magnificent and multifaceted contributions to the art of film music”. He was the second composer to receive this award after its introduction in 1928.

In the recording field, Morricone has received 27 Golden Records, 7 Platinum Records, 3 Golden Plates and the “Critica discografica” award for the music of the film “Il Prato”. The soundtrack from the film “The Good, The Bad and The Ugly” has been included in the list of inductees for the Grammy Hall of Fame 2009.

In the 2009 the President of the French Republic, Nicolas Sarkozy, has signed a decree appointing Ennio Morricone to the rank of Knight in the Order of the Legion of Honor.


Massimiliano Fuksas



MyZeil Massimiliano Fuksas is an Italian architect, native of Lituania , born in Rome in 1944. He graduated in Architecture at “La Sapienza” University in 1969, where he opened his first office. In the years to follow he opened offices in Paris, Vienna and Shenzhen (China).

From 1994 to 1997 he was a member of the urban commissions of Berlin and Salzburg.

Fuksas dedicated a lot of his time to the study of urban problems in large metropolitan areas.

From 1998 to 2000 he was Director of the VII Biennial of Architecture in Venice “Less Aesthetics, More Ethics”.

Fuksas also keeps a regular architectural column in the weekly magazine “L’Espresso” since 2000.

He was visiting professor at several universities, including the Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture in Paris and the Columbia University in New York.

Fuksas works a lot all over the world and the list of his architecture is very long. Some examples are:

  • Armani Fifth Avenue, New York
  • MyZeil, Frankfurt
  • ZENITH Music Hall, Amiens
  • Ferrari Operational Headquarters, Maranello, Modena
  • Maison des Arts, Bordeaux
  • Armani Ginza Tower, Tokyo

Fuksas lives and works between Rome and Paris.

Some of the recent awards:

  • 2002 Honorary Fellowship of the American Institute of Architects
  • 2000 Awarded Accademico Nazionale di San Luca, Italy
  • 2000 Awarded Commandeur de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres de la République Française
  • 1998 Awarded Vitruvio a la Trayectoria, in Buenos Aires
  • 999 Awarded Grand Prix d’Architecture Française


Eros Ramazzotti



Eros Ramazzotti Eros Ramazzotti is famous Italian singer and songwriter from Rome. He is very well known all around the Europe and especially in Spain and Latin America, due to his songs sang in Spanish.

His first steps towards the fame are made in a music contest called Voci Nuove di Castrocaro. He didn’t wit it, but had an opportunity to meet the owners of the label DDD who were very interested in his singing and called him to come to Milan, where his career started.

In 1984 he took part in a famous Sanremo Music Festival with his song “Terra Promessa”, and won the competition for the category “Newcomers”. That was his first brake through and the song was released world wide. Ramazzotti took part in the Sanremo Festival another two times in a row and his third time was the lucky one when he won the overall competition with his memorable song “Adesso Tu”.

Ramazzotti started traveling all around the world, from North to South America, and throughout the whole Europe making successes one after another. He played and made singles with many world wide famous people like Cher, Tina Turner, Patsy Kensit, Luciano Pavarotti, Ricky Martin.

In the summer of 1995 Ramazzotti participated in the European Summer festival beside Rod Stewart, Elton John and Joe Cocker.

Passionate autobiographical ballads, easy going melody, soft-rock influence are characteristic for this singer.

Ramazzotti also gained reputation of a recognized producer when he produced the album “Come fa bene l’amore” for Gianni Morandi in 2000.

Beside a couple of live albums and compilations, Eros published 10 studio albums:

  • Cuori agitati (Troubled Hearts) (1985)
  • Nuovi eroi (New Heroes) (1986)
  • In certi momenti (Sometimes) (1987)
  • In ogni senso (In Every Sense) (1990)
  • Tutte storie (All Stories) (1993)
  • Dove c’è musica (Where There is Music) (1996)
  • Stilelibero (Freestyle) (2000)
  • 9 (2003)
  • Calma apparente (Apparent Calm) (2005)
  • Ali e radici (Wings and roots) (2009)


Giancarlo Fisichella



Giancarlo Fisichella Giancarlo Fisichella is a famous Italian racing driver. He was born in Rome in 1973. Fisichella has driven in Formuna One for Minardi, Jordan, Benetton, Sauber, Renault, Force India and is currently driving for Ferrari replacing injured Felipe Massa. It is planed for him to be Ferrari’s reserve driver also for 2010.

As it usually begins, Fisichella started with kart racing and had some success. His first Formula One race was 1996 Australian Grand Prix.

Until 2003 Fisichella had some success but his first win was at the chaotic 2003 Brazilian Grand Prix. This race was abandoned for the safety reasons. Then followed another two wins in his career: the 2005 Australia Grand Prix and the 2006 Malaysian Grand Prix.

Outside of driving Giancarlo Fisichella has backed his own GP2 team, FMS International.


Max Biaggi



Max Biaggi Massimiliano Max Biaggi is a Roman motorcycle racer born in 1971.

Max began his racing career at the age of 18 in the 125cc class for Aprilia. Very soon he won the Italian Sport Production Championship. After this sudden success he passed to the 250cc class.

In 1991 Max became the European champion on an Aprilia RS250. In the years to follow, Biaggi won four World Championships: ’94 (Aprilia), ’95 (Aprilia), ’96 (Aprilia) and ’97 (Honda). Following his rising career, Max moved up to the 500cc class and made a rapid success once again. He arrived 2nd in the Japanese Grand Prix.

In 1999 Max tested the FErrari F399 F1 at the Fiorano Circuit in Modena gaining a remarcable risult.

In 2002 Biaggi passed to MotoGP class and rode four-stroke for the first time. He started well, it was expected that Biaggi would be one of the main candidates for the title in 2004, but a crash in Estoril saw his season begin to fade. Biaggi finished the championship in third place.

Max then lost his ride for the 2006 season. He attempted to reach an agreement to race the Superbike World Championship for Corona Alstare Suzuki in 2006 but the team could not commit to equal equipment with their existing riders.

2007. New hope. Biaggi began the season by winning the first race at the Losail International Circuit in Qatar and finishing second in race two. In doing so Max Biaggi became one of only five men to win their first Superbike World Championship race, and the only rider ever to win his first Superbike race and his first race in 500cc Grand Prix.

In 2008 he tried his luck with Ducati 1098RS.

The year 2009 marked his return to the roots, at least for now, joining the Aprilia team once again.

Max Biaggi currently lives in Monaco and is still very active racer.


Francesco Totti



Francesco Totti Francesco Totti, born in Rome, lives in Rome and plays for Roma all of his life. A.S.Roma‘s captain since 1997, Francesco Totti is considered the club’s symbol. His position is a striker or an attacking midfielder.

Totti is the number-one goalscorer and is considered to be Roma’s greatest player of all time. He has won a record five times Italian Footballer of the Year and two times Serie A Footballer of the year.

This World-Cup winning footballer, club’s famous n°10, besides football is an ambassador for UNICEF since 2003 and the FIFA/SOS Children’s Villages. Totti also runs a football school, “Number Ten,” and owns a motorcycle racing team called “Totti Top Sport.”



5 Dec

-Mengenang Totti di waktu muda-

sebagai seorang yang ganteng, totti dulu sempat dekat menjalin hubungan dengan beberapa perempuan.

Berikut Cewek-Cewek yang di gosipkan dekat sama Totti di masa muda dulu

*Maria Mazza
Seorang penari di Dominica inn. Cukup lama Totti menjalin cinta dengannya meski sempat putus nyambung beberapa kali.

*Samantha De grenet
Cewwk yang di duga biang keretakan hubungan Totti-Mazza. Ini karena Totti pernah terperangkap basah sedang bermesraan dengan tunangan Filipo Inzagi

*Alessia Merz
Cewek yang satu ini pernah deket dengan hidotosi nakata, sebelum tergoda ketampanan Totti

*Manuela Arcuri
Bintang film panas ini sempat pernah ke perrgok berduaan dengan Totti, namun saat di Tanya keduanya mengaku teman dekat.

*Flavio Vento
Seorang model yang di perkenalkan totti kepada public sebagai kekasihnya. Di tengah isu kedekatanya dengan Arcuri

*Ilary Blasi
Cewek Totti saat itu seorang model cantik yang sedang naik daun.
kelak Ilary Blasi menjadi tambatan hati Totti dan menjadikannya seorang istri.

Sumber : Soccer edisi Playmaker.Nov 2004

7 Gadget Yang akan punah di Dunia

29 Oct
  1. Telepon rumah. Seperempat rumah di Amerika Serikat sudah memutus telepon rumah dan 50 persen orang yang berumur 25-29 sudah memiliki ponsel.
  2. Pager. Ternyata pager masih ada dan orang-orang dalam bidang medislah yang paling banyak memakai. Akan tetapi, permintaan akan barang penerima pesan singkat ini semakin menipis. Tinggal tunggu waktu saja sebelum punah.
  3. Pemutar DVD. Karena harga film berdefinisi tinggi terus turun, keping DVD semakin ditinggalkan. Lagipula, keping film HD, seperti Blu-ray, tidak bisa diputar di pemutar DVD.
  4. Proyektor Film. Di Amerika Serikat, sudah 16 ribu layar film digital, lebih dari 5.000 bisa dipakai nonton film 3 dimensi. Proyektor digital bisa menampilkan gambar lebih bersih dan lebih tajam ketimbang proyektor film (atau sebut juga proyektor analog). Lagipula, banyak studio sudah menggunakan format digital untuk memangkas ongkos produksi film dan ongkos kirim gulungan film yang ukurannya besar ke bioskop-bioskop.
  5. Mouse Komputer. Dengan jari, orang bisa memperbesar atau memperkecil gambar, orang bisa menyentuh tombol untuk menerbitkan tulisan di blog, dan kebisaan-kebisaan lain.
  6. Charger Ponsel. Sudah ada tuh charger tanpa kabel. Cukup colok charger itu ke listrik, letakkan perangkat di atasnya, baterai terisi.
  7. Kartu Kredit. Menurut First Data, sebuah perusahaan pembayaran, semua isi dompet dapat dimasukkan ke dalam ponsel yang memiliki RFID (radio-frequency identification). Jadi, orang membayar cukup dengan mendekatkan ponsel ke dalam sebuah mesin pembayaran.

History of As Roma

21 Oct

Berdiri: 1927

Alamat: Via Trigoria Km 3,600 – 00128 Italy

Telepon: +39 06-501911

Faksimile: +39 06-5061736

Surat Elektronik: info@asromastore.it

Laman Resmi: http://www.asroma.it/

Ketua: Roberto Cappelli

Direktur: Walter Sabatini

Stadion: Stadio Olimpico, Roma (72.698) – Google Maps
Alamat : Viale del Fora Italico, 00100 Roma Telp. (0039-06-36851)
Luas Lapangan : 105m x 68m


Skuadra AS ROMA 2011-2012

[01] Bogdan Lobont
[18] Gianluca Curci
[24] Maarten Stekelenburg *
[93] Mirko Pigliacelli **

[02] Cicinho Cicero Joao de Cezare
[03] Jose Angel Valdes Diaz *
[04] Silveira Dos Santos Juan
[05] Gabriel Heinze *
[21] Loïc Nego *
[29] Nicolás Burdisso
[77] Marco Cassetti
[87] Aleandro Rosi
[…] Simon Thorup Kjær *

[07] David Pizarro
[11] Rodrigo Taddei
[16] Daniele De Rossi
[20] Simone Perrotta
[23] Leandro Greco
[30] Fabio Simplicio
[92] Federico Viviani **
[94] Valerio Verre **
[…] Fernando Rubén Gago *
[…] Miralem Pjanic *

[10] Francesco Totti (C)
[08] Erik Manuel Lamela *
[09] Pablo Daniel Osvaldo *
[14] Bojan Krkic Perez *
[22] Marco Borriello
[45] Fabio Borini *
[47] Gianluca Caprari
[89] Stefano Okaka Chuka
[90] Fabio Zamblera **

Allenatore: Luis Enrique
Presidente: Thomas Di Benedetto

Keterangan :
*Pemain Baru (i nuovi giocatori)
** Akademi Primavera


=Sejarah AS ROMA=

Associazione Sportiva Roma didirikan pada tahun 1927 oleh Italo Foschi. Klub ini merupakan hasil merger tiga klub Roma yang telah berdiri sebelumnya, yaitu Roman, Alba-Audace dan Fortitudo.

Merger tiga klub tersebut merupakan inisiatif diktator fasis terkenal Italia, Benito Mussolini. Tujuannya adalah membentuk klub yang kuat dari ibukota yang bisa mengakhiri dominasi klub-klub utara Italia saat itu.

Di tahun pertamanya sebagai klub profesional, AS Roma menjadikan Motovelodromo Appio sebagai stadion kandang mereka sebelum pindah di Campo Testaccio yang mulai dibuka pada November 1929.

AS Roma juga identik dengan warna merah marun dan kuning keemasan, yang mewakili warna tradisional dari kota itu sendiri. Warna itu sendiri diambil dari salah satu dari tiga klub merger, yaitu Roman Football Club.


Sejak berdiri di tahun 1927, AS Roma belum bisa mewujudkan ambisi Mussolini untuk mengakhiri dominasi klub dari utara Italia. Buktinya, hanya sedikit gelar diperoleh tim ibukota Italia itu dalam rentang waktu hampir sembilan dekade.

Di Serie A Italia, Roma hanya berhasil menjadi juara sebanyak tiga kali. Sementara di ajang Coppa Italia, sembilan titel dikoleksi dan gelar terakhir didapat tahun lalu. Di ajang Piala Super Italia, Roma memenangi ajang ini di tahun 2001 dan 2007. Di Serie B, Roma pernah menjadi juara di musim 1951/52.

Di kompetisi Internasional, Roma hanya satu kali memenangi ajang bergengsi, yaitu Piala UEFA di musim 196-/1961. Namun di ajang junior, Roma tampil cukup dominan. Di even Campionato Nazionale Primavera, enam gelar berhasil disegel pasukan Roma, sementara di Coppa Italia Primavera, mereka berhasil memperoleh tiga titel juara. Tak salah jika kemudian banyak pemain junior Roma yang kemudian menjadi bintang, seperti Danielle de Rossi dan Alberto Aquilani.

Scudetto :
1941-42, 1982-83, 2000-01

Italian Cup :
1963-64, 1968-69, 1979-80, 1980-81, 1983-84, 1985-86, 1990-91, 2006-07, 2007-08

Serie B :

Italian Super Cup :
2000-01, 2006-07

Fairs Cup :

European Cup :
Anglo Cup – Italia (1972)

10 sengketa paling terkenal

13 Oct

Setiap negara di dunia memiliki perbatasan berdasarkan beragam kriteria. Namun, batas politik suatu negaralah yang paling sering memicu perdebatan. Tidak hanya konflik Indonesia dan Malaysia ada juga beberapa kasus bahkan menyulut pecahnya konflik bersenjata antara dua negara yang masih terus berlangsung hingga saat ini. Situs penyenarai Listverse merangkum daftar 10 Sengketa Perbatasan Paling Kontroversial yang masih terjadi sampai sekarang.

10. Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Georgia vs Republik Abkhazia dan Republik Ossetia Selatan

Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan adalah dua negara erpublik pecahan Georgia di Kaukasus. Keduanya telah berupaya melepaskan diri dari Georgia sejak tahun 1920-an. Setelah Revolusi Rusia tahun 1917, Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan ditetapkan sebagai dua republik otonom yang merupakan bagian dari Georgia dan termasuk di dalam wilayah Uni Soviet. Namun setelah perang tahun 1920-an, Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan mendeklarasikan kemerdekaannya pada 1923 dan 1922. Masalah kedaulatan keduanya semakin kompleks di masa keruntuhan Uni Soviet dan Georgia mendeklarasikan independensinya yang akhirnya berujung pada perang di tahun 1992 dan 2008. Rusia pada akhirnya mengakui kedua republik tersebut sebagai negara yang terpisah dan berdiri sendiri. Namun PBB, Uni Eropa dan NATO menolak mengakui kedaulatan Abkhazia dan Ossetia Selatan.

9. Kosovo

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Republik Serbia dan Republik Kosovo

Keruntuhan negara sosialis di tahun 1990-an juga berpengaruh pada Yugoslavia. Pada masa keruntuhan Yugoslavia, terbentuk lima negara baru; Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kroasia, Makedonia, Slovenia, dan Republik Federasi Yugoslavia yang menaungi daerah otonomi Kosovo. Pada tahun 1998-1999 pecah perang ketika “Kosovo Liberation Army” menuntut kemerdekaan dari RF Yugoslavia. Setelah perang berakhir, RF Yugoslavia melepas semua klaimnya atas Kosovo dan menerimanya sebagai wilayah yang diawasi PBB.

Pada tahun 2006, RF Yugoslavia pecah menjadi Serbia dan Montenegro, sementara Kosovo mendeklarasikan kemerdekaannya dari Serbia pada 17 Februari 2008 dengan memilih Pristina sebagai ibukota. Kosovo diakui secara resmi sebagai sebuah negara oleh 80 negara anggota PBB plus Taiwan. Meski telah menjadi anggota IMF dan Bank Dunia, status Kosovo sampai saat ini masih belum diakui sebagai negara berdaulat secara sepenuhnya.

8. Sahara Barat

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Kerajaan Maroko vs Republik Demokratik Arab Sahrawi

Sahara Barat berada di wilayah Afrika yang dikelilingi Maroko, Algeria, dan Mauritania. Wilayahnya sebagian besar terdiri atas padang pasir sehingga populasinya pun hanya sekitar 500 ribu penduduk yang sebagian besar tinggal di kota. Pada awalnya, Sahara Barat berada di bawah kekuasaan Imperium Spanyol.

Namun setelah Kesepakatan Madrid pada tahun 1975, ketika Spanyol sepakat untuk mengakhiri keberadaannya di wilayah itu, Sahara Barat diklaim oleh Maroko dan Republik Demokratik Arab Sahrawi (RDAS). Sebanyak 20-25% wilayah Sahara Barat berada di bawah kekuasaan RDAS sementara Maroko mengontrol selebihnya. Kekuasaan RDAS diakui oleh 58 provinsi sedangkan 22 provinsi lain menarik dukungan meerka dan 12 lainnya baru akan menentukan sikap setelah referendum PBB. Namun hingga saat ini, PBB tidak mengakui Sahara Barat sebagai negara berdaulat di bawah pemerintahan RDAS.

7. Gibraltar

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Kerjaan Spanyol vs Inggris Raya dan Irlandia Utara

Wilayah Gibraltar telah jadi sengketa sejak bertahun-tahun lalu. Posisinya yang strategis di Selat Gibraltar memungkinkan akses ke Laut Tengah dan Suez, yang merupakan jalur penting pelayaran dan perdagangan internasional. Saat ini, kendali militer selat itu dipegang oleh Inggris dan Maroko meskipun Spanyol memiliki pangkalan militer yang cukup besar di area yang sama.

Awalnya, Gibraltar dikuasai oleh kekuatan Anglo-Belanda pada tahun 1704. Kemudian pada tahun 1713 Spanyol menyerahkannya pada Inggris melalui Perjanjian Utrecht. Sejak itu, Spanyol tiga kali berusaha mengambil alih kembali Gibraltar namun tidak berhasil. Referendum yang diadakan pada 1967 dan 2002 yang bertujuan untuk mengembalikan wilayah itu ke Spanyol, justru menghasilkan sebaliknya, 99% penduduk memilih untuk tetap berada di bawah kekuasaan Inggris. Memang tidak ada ketegangan berarti antara Spanyol dan Inggris terkait klaim wilayah ini, namun Spanyol tetap tidak mau melepaskan kekuasaan politiknya atas Gibraltar.

6. Georgia Selatan dan Kepulauan Sandwich Selatan

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Republik Argentina vs Inggris Raya dan Irlandia Utara

Kepulauan ini terkait erat dengan Kepualaun Falkland yang juga menjadi sumber keretakan hubungan Argentina dan Inggris. Sejak James Cook mendarat di Georgia Selatan pada tahun 1775 dan Kepulauan Sandwich pada tahun 1908, Inggris menganeksasi keduanya pada 1908. Sedangkan Argentina mengklaim kekuasaannya berdasarkan keberadaan perusahaan penangkapan paus yang mulai beroperasi tahun 1908 di Georgia Selatan, namun telah menandatangani perjanjian sewa kepada pemerintah Kepulauan Falkland sejak tahun 1906. Pada tahun 1985, Georgia Selatan dan Kepualauan Sandwich Selatan resmi menjadi wilayah luar negeri Inggris. Namun Argentina tetap melanjutkan klaim kedaulatannya atas kedua wilayah kepualauan itu. Perkembangan terbaru pada tahun 2010, Presiden Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, menelpon Ratu Elizabeth II untuk menyerahkan Georgia Selatan dan Kepulauan Falkland kepada Argentina.

5. Tibet

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Pemerintah Adminsitrasi Tibet vs Republik Rakyat China

Sejarah kedaulatan Tibet terentang panjang sejak abad 13. Secara hukum, pemerintah Republik Rakyat China (RRC) melihat Tibet sebagai bagian tak terpisahkan sejak Dinasti Yuan. Fakta ini didukung peta kuno dan negara-negara lain sehingga menjadikan Tibet sebagai wilayah otonom China. Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Uni Eropa dan Perancis serta banyak negara lain mengakui Tibet sebagai bagian dari China.

Akar konflik yang terus berlanjut hingga saat ini terjadi saat Invasi China ke Tibet pada tahun 1950, ketika pemerintahan baru komunis memulai “Pembebasan Seluruh Wilayah China” sehingga menimbulkan pecahnya perang. Setalah perang berakhir, Pemerintah Administrasi Tibet (PAT), yang diwakili Dalai Lama, menyerahkan Tibet kepada China dengan 17 poin kesepakatan. Namun, delegasi Tibet dipaksa menandatangani kesepakatan tersebut. Hingga saat ini PAT berada di pengasingan di India dan tidak ada tanda-tanda Tibet akan memperoleh kemerdekaannya.

4. Siprus

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Republik Siprus vs Republik Turki Siprus Utara

Siprus merupakan kelanjutan konflik Yunani dan Turki di era modern. Konflik kedua negara sendiri telah berlangsung selama berabad-abad. “Kepemilikan” Siprus selalu berpindah tangan antara Turki dan Inggris sepanjang sejarah sejak pertama kali dikuasai Kekaisaran Turki Ottoman. Diantara penguasaan kedua negara tersebut, muncul pula beberapa kali pemberontakan yang mendukung kedaulatan penuh dari salah satu negara. Salah satunya dilakukan kelompok perlawanan Siprus Turki EOKA yang menginginkan penyatuan Siprus dengan Turki.

Dari sekian lama pergolakan yang masih terjadi hingga sekarang, Turki menguasai 37% bagian utara pulau tersebut dan mengklaim secara de facto berdirinya Republik Turki Siprus Utara. Meski begitu, pertempuran antara Yunani dan Siprus Turki masih jadi pemandangan harian hingga saat ini. Inggris, Yunani, dan Turki pun harus meminta NATO untuk turut menjaga perdamaian. Sementara di sisi lain, hanya Turki yang mengakui Republik Turki Siprus Utara sebagai sebuah negara dan sampai sekarang tidak ada tanda-tanda pulau tersebut akan bersatu dalam sebuah negara utuh.

3. Kepulauan Falkland

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Republik Argentina vs Inggris Raya dan Irlandia Utara

Kepualauan ini berkaitan erat dengan Georgia Selatan, namun dengan banyak kepentingan yang terlibat di dalamnya. Inggris dan Argentina telah men-sengketakan Falkland sejak ratusan tahun lalu. Inggris telah mengklaim kedaulatannya atas Falkland sejak tahun 1690 serta mencoba menguatkannya secara de facto sejak 1833. Argentina mulai mempersengkatakan kepemilikan Falkland sebelum tahun 1833 ketika kepualauan tersebut berada di bawah kekuasaannya meski hanya dalam waktu singkat.

Perancis adalah negara pertama yang menguasai Falkland, setelah itu kekuasaan kerap berpindah diantara Spanyol, Inggris dan Argentina sampai tahun 1833, saat Inggris mengklaim kedaulatannya dan mengusir Argentina. Kepulauan itu akhirnya berada dalam kekuasaan Inggris sampai tahun 1982 ketika Argentina melakukan invasi sekaligus memulai Perang Falkland. Hingga saat ini, Falkland tetap berada di bawah penguasaan Inggris namun Argentina tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda melepaskan klaimnya atas kepulauan yang sama.

2. Taiwan

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Republik Rakyat China vs Republik China (Taiwan)

Berbeda dengan Tibet, Republik China – lebih dikenal dengan nama Taiwan – memperoleh dukungan internasional atas keputusannya memisahkan diri dari Republik Rakyat China (RRC). Beberapa negara bahkan menyarankan untuk menanggalkan nama China dan menggantinya menjadi Republik Taiwan untuk melepaskan hubungan dari negara komunis itu. Sebelum Perang Dunia (PD) 2, Taiwan dimiliki oleh Jepang sedangkan nama Republik China mengacu pada negeri China daratan. Setelah PD
2, Jepang menyerahkan Taiwan kepada Republik China.

Namun karena perang saudara yang terjadi antara RRC dan Republik China, kepemilikan Taiwan pun jadi tidak jelas sehingga pada akhirnya mendeklarasikan diri sebagai sebuah negara berdaulat yang terlepas dari RRC yang menguasai China daratan. RRC menolak mengakui Taiwan sebagai sebuah negara dan tidak menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara-negara yang mengakui Taiwan. Sampai sekarang, Taiwan belum memperoleh pengakuan penuh sebagai sebuah negara. Hanya 23 negara yang menjalin hubungan diplomatik resmi dengan negara pulau itu sementara negara lainnya, meskipun mengakui Taiwan sebagai sebuah negara, memilih untuk menjalin hubungan diplomatik tidak resmi.

1. Palestina

Negara yang terlibat konflik: Palestina vs Israel

Konflik Palestina – Israel yang telah berlangsung selama ribuan tahun menjadi konflik paling populer yang layak jadi pemuncak daftar ini. Terlepas dari sejarah sengketa yang berbasis agama, konflik kedua negara di era modern dimulai pasca PD 2 dan genosida yang dilakukan Nazi terhadap bangsa Yahudi. Ketika kamp-kamp konsentrasi Yahudi dibebaskan, ribuan Yahudi yang memerlukan tempat tinggal berbondong-bondong secara massal ke Palestina yang ketika itu populasinya didominasi bangsa Arab.

Konflik pun mulai pecah dan PBB mencoba menengahi dengan mengajukan Rencana Pembagian Palestina menjadi dua negara terpisah, masing-masing satu untuk bangsa Arab dan Yahudi dengan Yerusalem sebagai kawasan netral yang berada di bawah pengawasan PBB. Pada 14 Mei 1948 bangsa Yahudi mendeklarasikan kemerdekaan sekaligus mendirikan negara Israel. Keesokan harinya, Mesir, Syria, Lebanon, dan Iran menggempur Israel yang menandakan dimulainya Perang Arab-Israel. Setahun kemudian diberlakukan gencatan senjata dan perbatasan sementara ditetapkan. Yordania mengambil alih wilayah Tepi Barat dan Yerusalem Timur sedangkan Mesir menguasai Jalur Gaza.

Masalah berikutnya muncul pada tahun 1956 saat Krisis Terusan Suez ketika Israel yang dibantu Spanyol dan Inggris menginvasi Semenanjung Sinai. Pada tahun 1966, hubungan Dunia Arab dengan Israel semakin memburuk yang berujung pada pecahnya Perang Enam Hari pada tahun 1967. Setelah perang usai, Israel berhasil mengambil alih Jalur Gaza dan Semenanjung Sinai dari Mesir, Tepi Barat dan Yerusalem Timur dari Yordania serta Dataran Tinggi Golan dari Syria. Enam tahun kemudian, Perang Yom Kippur pecah dan hubungan Israel dengan negara-negara Arab semakin memburuk.

Tahun 1988, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) mendeklarasikan berdirinya negara Palestina namun mereka tidak memegang kontrol wilayah Palestina. Sejak saat itu, PLO terus memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Palestina berdasarkan perbatasan yang pernah ditetapkan di tahun 1967. Saat ini, Liga Arab, dan sebagian besar negara-negara di Amerika Selatan, Afrika dan Asia mengakui negara Palestina. Sedangkan negara-negara Eropa dan Amerika Utara bersikap sebaliknya. Tahun ini PBB berencana menyelenggarakan pemungutan suara mengenai status negara Palestina.
Sumber: Listverse / Nationalgeographic

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